Social Science Research Projects

The research projects funded by WADA, along with a summary of the research proposal, can be found below.


Evaluating the impact of the WADA International Standard for Education (ISE) at the global and anti-doping organization (ADO) levels

Supporting anti-doping organizations’ education plans through capacity building
Mr. Mathieu WINAND

The understudied nexus between national sports policy and clean sports behaviour: Dimensions, Priorities, Policy challenges and impacts
Mr. Teddy GAFNA

Animate: Anti-Doping Intervention in promotion clean sports behaviours
Mr. Fabio LUCIDI 

Perspectives of athletes and athlete support personnel about anti-doping systems from Chile and Colombia: Perceived effectiveness, determinants and implementation strategies

Teammate and training partner support in recreational triathletes doping attitudes and concerns
Mrs. Trang DO

Athletes with intellectual impairments and their support personnel: Understanding anti-doping policy, provision, and practice
Mr. Philip HURST

Personality traits, attitudes, and perceptions of legitimacy towards anti-doping programs among athletes

Doping knowledge, attitude, and ethical belief among Rwanda athlete support personel

Educational intervention with athletes and coaches based on goals orientations and motivational climates on attitudes doping in Mexican athletes
Mr. Hussein MUÑOZ HELÚ

Attitudes towards and susceptibility to doping related to dietary supplements in Portuguese elite athletes
Ms. Monica SOUSA

The “selves” in doping: A multi-country study
Mr. Shuge ZHANG



Legitimacy perceptions of the anti-doping system held by Russian athletes, athlete support personnel, and university students in sport disciplines
Dr. Petr TSARKOV / Federal science center for physical culture & sport

The role of athlete support personnel in promoting clean sport behaviours and cultures within international cerebral palsy football.
Dr. Jamie BARKER / Loughborough University, School of Sport Exercise and Health Science

Effectiveness of Anti-doping: Developing Interventions that will Maximize the Development of Clean Sport Behaviors in Zimbabwe
Dr. Lysias CHARUMBIRA / Bindura University of Science Education

Les facteurs de vulnérabilité au dopage varient-ils selon le sport d’équipe pratiqué? Une étude clinique Canadienne
Dr. Jean Francois CLEMENT / Département de Médecine de famille et de médecine d’urgence du Centre de recherche Charles-LeMoyne / CR-CSIS

Vulnérabilité physique et psychologique et dopage en cyclisme de haut niveau : mécanismes explicatifs explicites et implicites, PSYDOPCY-AMA
Dr. Karine CORRION / Université Côte D’Azur, Laboratoire Motricite Humaine Expertise Sport Santé

Identification and analyses the role of Athlete support Personnel’s (ASP) attitudes towards doping
Dr. Shorena KHURTSIDZE / GESOMAR, (Private social and market research company)

Survey of athletes’ beliefs and behaviors with respect to doping, and to assess the effectiveness of anti-doping programs
Mrs. Silvana VALOPPI/ Comision Nacional Antidopaje Argentina, Education and Research

Cultivating clean sport environment with athlete support personnel (ASP): Study on knowledge, perception and practice of ASP and educational programme
Dr. Ming Chiang LIM / Hospital Sultan Haji Shah, Department of Pharmacy

Experience and knowledge of anti-doping programmes amongst Athlete Support Personnel in Zimbabwe
Dr. Tapfuma MUDAWARIMA / DDT College of Medicine, Physiotherapy Department

Developing an uMunthu-based Anti-Doping Moral Education Framework in Malawi
Dr. Yamikani NDASAUKA / University of Malawi, Chancellor College

Influence of achievement goal orientation, motivational climate and sport supplements use on attitudes towards doping among Kenya secondary school athlete
Mr. Eric DERRICK KIPKOECH NGETICH MOI University, Management Science and Entrepreneurship

Chronic disease, injury, medication use, doping attitudes and the doping implications in South African Masters Athletes
Dr. Kim NOLTE / University of Pretoria, Physiology (Division of Biokinetics and Sport Science)

Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences on Anti-Doping of General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya
Mr. Jonathan ROTICH / Kenyatta University, Recreation and Sports Management Department

Optimising international doping control systems: A systems analysis of doping controls in Cycling and Football codes
Dr. Scott MCLEAN Sunshine Coast University

Unlocking the black box – Agent-based simulations to measure the effectiveness of sample storage and retesting
Dr. Daniel WESTMATTELMANN / University of Muesnter, Center Management

Understanding athlete behavioural motivations and value characteristics for the purpose of clean sport education programming
Dr. David WYRICK University of North Caroline, Greensborough

Assessment of Prevalence and Predisposing Factor of Doping Among Athletes in Dominant Olympic Sport in Kenya
Mr. Martin YAUMA / Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya, Department of Education and Research



A test of the effectiveness of the SafeYou program in four countries. A randomised control trial
Dr. Vassilis BARKOUKIS / Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Attitudes, intentions and behavior toward doping among athletics in Spain: a combination of quantitative and experimental studies.
Dr. Arturo CASADO / Universidad Internacional Isabel I de Castilla

Evaluation of AEPSAD Spain’s Anti-Doping Agency Educational Interventions among Elite Athletes and Sports Sciences Students
Dr. Carlos GARCIA / Universidad Europea de Madrid

Do anti-doping interventions work?
Dr. Vassil GIRGINOV / Brunel University London

Understanding the role of Kenyan Collegiate athlete support personnel in the pursuit of clean sport
Dr. Janet KAMENJU / University of Nairobi

Supplements, herbs and doping products usage among Uganda athletes and coaches.
Dr. Haruna MUWONGE / Makerere University College of Health Sciences

An Investigation into staff perceptions concerning the legitimacy of anti-doping policy implementation in regional anti-doping organisations
Dr. James SKINNER / Loughborough University

Anti-Doping Education and Consideration/Intention of Using Prohibited Substances in Botswana, Zambia, and Papua New Guinea
Dr. Tshepang TSCHUBE / University of Botswana



Digital pathways to Doping: an innovative netnographic approach on the use of untested supplements and the underlying cheating culture
Dr. Ornella CORAZZA / University of Hertfordshire Higher Education Corporate

Enhancing Attention and Recall of Doping Prevention Messages by Testing the Influence of Adolescent Athletes’ Perceived Vulnerability to Doping
Dr. Lindsay DUNCAN /  McGill University

Gender Outcomes in Using Brief Motivational Interventions (BMIs) on Shaping Beliefs and Attitudes towards Doping for Athletes in Secondary Schools
Dr. Eunice GITHAE / Kenyatta University

Examining the Role of Personal Ethics in Athlete and Stakeholder Perceptions of Anti-Doping
Dr. John MILLS / University of Essex

Understanding and influencing global coach anti-doping education through the development of an International Framework
Dr. Laurie PATTERSON / Leeds Beckett University

Using the influence of coaches, parents, and peers on adolescent elite athletes’ doping cognitions to enhance doping prevention effectiveness
Dr. Tirza VAN NOORDEN  / Radboud University



Evaluation of a School-Based Intervention Program – NADA Austria’s Anti-Doping School Program
Dr. Cornelia BLANK / Austria 

Understanding and nurturing the role of young athletes’ parents in doping prevention
Prof. Mathieu WINAND / Luxembourg 

The 3D Project: Development and evaluation of a multidimensional universal program addressing three interrelated behavioral influences on doping behavior 
Dr. Zali YAGER / Australia



Support athletes blow the whistle against doping
Vassilis BARKOUKIS / Greece

Developing an Evidence-Based Smartphone Application for Monitoring and Promoting Athletes’ Awareness to Unintentional Doping
CHAN / Hong Kong, China

Blowing the whistle on doping in sport through evidence-informed policy making

Interim Report – Global Whistleblowing Landscape for Reporting Doping in Sport

Developing and Evaluating the CREST Anti-Doping Programme
NAIDOO / South Africa

Étude du processus de dénonciation du dopage chez les sportifs malgaches et leur personnel de soutien



The effects of permitted forms of performance enhancement on determinants of doping in UK student-athletes

Doping attitudes, moral disengagement, and ethical decision-making of young talented athletes: An advanced intervention study
Brigitte CLAESSENS / Netherlands

Perceptions of legitimacy, attitudes and buy-in among athlete groups: a cross-national qualitative investigation providing practical solutions
April HENNING and Paul DIMEO / UK

Social change and doping decision-making: Building a conceptual framework and survey development

Psychological aspects of the perception of legitimacy of anti-doping: Systematic review and thematic analysis of the doping literature



Enhancing Anti-Doping Education Interventions Using Framed Messages
Lindsay DUNCAN / Canada

From research to application: An evidence-based psychosocial intervention for doping prevention in young athletes

The interactive effects of moral identity and moral disengagement on doping: An experimental investigation
Nicholas STANGER / UK



Designing and Validating Measures of Doping Moral Disengagement and Self-Regulatory Efficacy, and Assessing a Model of Doping Behavior

Awareness, perception and attitude to doping and performance-enhancing substance use among athletes in teacher training colleges in Kenya
Janet KAMENJU / Kenya

Doping in Czech adolescents: Prevalence, correlates and experiences
Jiri MUDRAK / Czech republic

Development and Validation of the Adolescent Sport Drug Inventory (ASDI) and Factors that Influence Attitudes among Adolescents

A cross-cultural investigation of the effects of coach motivational strategies on athlete doping behaviors: Direct and indirect relations


Dire non au dopage : antécédents et modalités de développement des compétences psychosociales (CPS) chez les sportifs de haut-niveau (Saying no to doping: history and how to develop life skills (CPS) in elite athletes)
Karine CORRION/ France

Legitimating the fight: Cross cultural perspectives on anti-doping strategies in the Pacific
Dr. James CONNOR / Australia

Développement, implantation, et evaluation de l’impact d’un programme de prevention du dopage sportif (Development, implementation and evaluation of the impact of a program of prevention of doping in sport)
Dr. Claude GOULET / Canada

Determinants of performance and performance indicators of national anti-doping organizations
Prof. Werner JANN / Germany

A cross-cultural approach to a cross-cultural issue: Psychosocial factors and doping in young athletes

Exploring the processes through which personality traits affect doping responses
Dr. Andrew LEVY / UK


Precipitating or prohibiting factor? Examining coaches' perspectives of their role in doping and anti-doping
Dr. Justine ALLEN / UK

Sport intensif à l'adolescence : l'apprentissage de la douleur (Intensive sport during adolescence: learning about pain)
Dr. Thomas BUJON / France

A cross-national longitudinal investigation of the contribution of efficacy belief systems and interpersonnal appraisals on doping use in team sports
Dr. Fabio LUCIDI / Italy

Influencing factors of Chinese adolescent athletes' doping intention and strategy of anti-doping education

A statistical synthesis of the literature on personal and situational variables that predict doping in physical activity settings
Dr. Nikolaos NTOUMANIS / UK

Nutritional supplement habits and perceptions of athletes with a disability
Dr. Vicky TOLFREY / UK

Analysis of multilevel factors and trnaistions influencing athletes' drug-taking behavior
Dr. Paul WYLLEMAN / Belgium

Effect of the level of physical fitness and game participation on attitudes toward doping of elite U-20 soccer players
Dr. Georgios ZIOGAS / Greece

Reviewing the social science of drugs in sport: Five years on *

Why do athletes say NO! to doping: exploring reasons across sport, age, ethnicity and experience *
Dr. David COLLINS / UK

* Part of the Target Research Program


Project to implement a doping prevention strategy in an educational environment in Ivory Coast
Dr. Dimi Théodore DOUDOU / Ivory Coast

The relationship between mindfulness, psychological well-being, goal orientation and the propensity to use ergogenic aids (legal/illegal)
Dr. Kim NOLTE / South Africa

Team dynamics and doping behavior in elite athletes: a focus on normative processes
Dr. Haralambos TSORBATZOUDIS / Greece

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of coaches belonging to different generations in relation to doping behavior of athletes
Dr. Alexander VANKHADLO / Belarus

Team dynamics and doping in sport: A risk or a protective factor? *
Dr. Paul DIMEO / UK

* Part of the Target Research Program


Prévenir le dopage chez les jeunes en France et en Espagne: approche multidimensionnelle des processus de conduites dopantes
Dr. Dominique BODIN / Université de Rennes 2, France

Anti-doping policies and reasons (not) to dope: a need for diversified prevention strategies?)
Dr. Gertrud PFISTER / University of Copenhague, Danemark

Determinants of intentions for doping in sports in youth: Empirical study and prevention intervention in adolescent athletes (DIDIS-Youth)
Dr. Haralambos TSORBATZOUDIS / University of Thessaloniki, Greece

A national investigation of psychosocial factors facilitating doping in bodybuilders
Dr. Ian BOARDLEY / University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Death for performance: What would athletes trade-off for success?
Dr. James CONNOR / University of New South Wales, Australia

"If everyone is using, shouldn't I?": perceived norms of anabolic androgenic steroid use among high school athletes
Dr. Jules WOOLF / University of Western Illinois, USA

Doping behaviour, causes and prevention in elite level Kenyan athletes: an empirical investigation
Dr. Paul DIMEO / University of Stirling, United Kingdom (in partnership with the University of Kenyatta, Kenya)

Le dopage en milieu sportif au Burkina Faso : Causes, Connaissances, Attitudes et Pratiques des principales communautés sportives
Dr. Innocent GUISSOU / Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

A national investigation of psychosocial factors facilitating doping in bodybuilders
Dr. Ian BOARDLEY / University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Preventing doping in sport: An investigation of the attitudes and perceived role of high performance coaches
Dr. Aidan MORAN / University of Dublin, Ireland

Global evaluation of the anti-doping program: proposed by an international federation
Dr. Fabio MANFREDINI / International Biathlon Union, in partnership with the University of Ferrara, Italy


A qualitative examination of knowledge of doping, and motivations and/or deterrents to dope, among American and Canadian elite female triathletes
Dr. Ted BUTRYN / San Jose State University, USA

The relationship between moral code, participation in sport, and attitudes towards performance enhancing drugs in young people
Dr. James Skinner / Griffith University, Australia

The Effect of Negative Health Consequences Information on Likelihood to Use Anabolic Steroids: An International Investigation
Dr. Tonya DODGE / Skidmore College, USA

A study of surroundings influence on attitude towards and behaviour regarding doping among Ukrainian athletes and non-athletes
Dr. Dmitriy BONDAREV, / Sevastopol National Technical University, Ukraine

Markers of transition phases in assisted performance enhancement in emerging young athletes
Dr. Andrea PETROCZI / Kingston University, UK

Learning about psycho-social determinants of doping behaviour through the testimony of sanctioned athletes
Dr Mattia PIFFARETTI / UAC&T Consulting, Switzerland

Enhancing coaches’ confidence in confronting athletes who are suspected of doping
Dr Philip SULLIVAN/ Brock University, Canada

Exploring the application of social media in influencing the attitudes and behaviours of young athletes towards doping *
Dr Jon BATTERHAM / Edcoms, UK

A Handbook for the evaluation of anti-doping education programmes *
Dr Barrie HOULIHAN / Loughborough University, UK

* Part of the Target Research Program


Prevention through Education - A Review of current International Social Science Literature *
Dr. Susan BACKHOUSE / Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

Determinants of Intentions for Doping In Sports
Dr. Haralambos TSORBATZOUDIS / Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Doping prevalence among high School students in Ukraine: a study of Knowledge attitudes and behaviour
Dr. Dmitriy BONDAREV / Sevastopol National Technical University, Ukraine

Measurement Tool for estimating the prevalence of doping: development and validation of a self-report measure of performance enhancing drug use *
Dr. Andrea PETROCZI / Kingston University, UK

Under 23 Cyclists' openness to doping: understanding the causes of doping behaviour among American junior road cyclists with professional aspirations
Dr. Brian GILLEY / University of Vermont, USA

Analysis of Knowledge and social awareness of doping and prevention among athletes in CÓRDOBA (Argentina) and the preventative approach
Dr. Elsa Clara CORBELLA / Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina

A Sociocultural Analysis of Doping and Gender
Dr. Charlene WEAVING / St. Francis Xavier, Canada

Incorporating Parents in the Anti-Doping Fight: A Test of the Viability of a Parent-Based Prevention Program *
Dr. Tonya DODGE / Skidmore College, USA

The effects of moral reasoning educational program on the moral judgement indicators of athletes participating in elite collegiate sports
Dr. Amukela GWEBU / University of Iowa, USA

* Part of the Target Research Program


Boosting in elite athletes with high spinal cord injury: awareness, knowledge and attitudes of athletes, coaches and trainers
Dr. Yagesh BHAMBHANI / University of Alberta, Canada

Les facteurs psychologiques et sociaux de risque et de protection vis-a-vis du dopage
Dr. Jean BILARD / Université Montpellier 1, France

Medical Doctors and Doping in Sport: Attitudes and Experience in Balkan Region - 8 Countries Study
Dr. Nenad DIKIC / Anti-Doping Agency of Serbia, Serbia

Risk Factors within Doping Behavior Related to Personality Structure and Social Environment of the Athletes
Dr. Graziela VAJIALA / National Anti-Doping Agency of Romania, Romania

Compliance to the World Anti-Doping Program: A Status Evaluation of National Sport Organizations in Hong Kong
Dr. Lena FUNG / Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong


International Literature Review: Attitudes, Behaviours, Knowledge and Education – Drugs in Sport: Past, Present and Future
Dr. Susan BACKHOUSE / Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

Parcours de consommation de produits dopants de sportifs appelant un service d’aide téléphonique
Dr. Jean BILARD / Université Montpellier 1, France

Intermediate and high school students' attitudes toward and behavior regarding steroids and sports supplements use: The mediation of clique identity
Dr. Roger REES / Adelphi University, USA

Performance-enhancing drug-use among amateur sportsmen and women in Cameroon: A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices
Dr. Emmanuel Chia KIAWI / African Research Institute for Development (AFRID), Cameroon

Social Psychology within the anti-doping area: baseline statistics and profiles of athlete’s attitude and knowledge
Dr. Ingemar WEDMAN / International Doping Test & Management (IDTM), Sweden


The impact of changes to the Prohibited Substance List on use of over-the-counter medication by athletes
Dr. Neil CHESTER / Liverpool John Moores University, UK

The development and validation of a doping attitudes and behaviour scale (DABS)
Dr. Aidan MORAN / University College, Ireland

The relationship between goal orientation and attitudes toward doping in sports. Knowledge about and attitudes toward doping among Polish athletes
Dr. Krzysztof SAS-NOWOSIELSKI / Academy of Physical Education, Poland

Socialisation secondaire et intériorisation des normes de dopage en cyclisme sur route : le cas de la Belgique, de la France et de la Suisse
Dr. Fabien OHL / Université de Lausanne, Switzerland