The fundamental principle of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is to monitor selected biological variables over time that indirectly reveal the effects of doping rather than attempting to detect the doping substance or method itself.
Anti-doping organizations can integrate the Athlete Biological Passport into the larger framework of a robust anti-doping program in order to:
- Identify and target athletes for specific analytical testing by intelligent and timely interpretation of Passport data; and
- Pursue possible anti-doping rule violations based on an atypical passport, in accordance with Article 2.2: Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method of the World Anti-Doping Code (Code).
As the international independent organization responsible for coordinating and monitoring the global fight against doping in sport, WADA has taken the lead in the development of the Athlete Biological Passport concept. WADA’s Athlete Biological Passport Operating Guidelines (ABP Guidelines) were approved by WADA’s Executive Committee and took effect on December 1st, 2009. This first version contained a standardized approach to the profiling of individual Athlete Haematological variables for the detection of blood doping (the ‘Haematological Module’ or ‘blood module’).
Since then, WADA ABP Guidelines have been continuously refined and the ABP approach has been successfully integrated into the anti-doping strategies of numerous International Federation (IF) and National Anti-Doping Agency (NADO) programs, resulting in a significant increase in the number of adverse analytical findings (AAFs) that are a result of targeting by the ABP as well as a number of direct anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs).
The 4th version of the WADA ABP Guidelines, which were approved by WADA’s Executive Committee in November 2013, introduced a second module, the `Steroidal Module´, which becomes operational on January 1st, 2014. The Steroidal Module monitors selected urinary steroid concentrations over time in order to detect steroid doping.
WADA will continue to develop the ABP in consultation with stakeholders, by refining the present modules as well as adding new ones as they are finalized.
implementation in ADAMS
To read about how the hematological and steroidal passports are implemented in ADAMS, please consult the online ADAMS guide. It provides the necessary steps to manage an ABP : Athlete Biological Passport program in line with WADA ABP Operating Guidelines and related Technical Documents.
In 2009, WADA released the first version of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) Operating Guidelines, which introduced a standardized approach to the profiling of individual athlete haematological variables (the ‘Haematological Module’).
The Steroidal Module, launched on January 1st, 2014, complements the Haematological Module and, like the Haematological Module, aims to identify potential athletes for further target testing in addition to assisting detection of anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs).
The Steroidal Module tests an athlete’s urine sample to observe unique steroidal variables such as testosterone, therefore making it a useful technique in spotting athlete abuse of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids.
At WADA’s Executive Committee Meeting on September 11, 2013, a new Technical Document (TD) on the Measurement and Reporting of Endogenous Anabolic Androgenic Steroids for Laboratories was approved. This Technical Document comes into force January 2014, and sets the stage for the introduction of the new ABP Steroidal Module.
Accordingly, ABP Operating Guidelines were revised by WADA to account for this new TD, which was a pre-condition for the launch of the Steroidal Module. The updated Operating Guidelines, were approved by WADA’s Executive Committee in November 2013 and take effect January 1st, 2014. They include modest changes to the mandatory documents on sample collection, sample transportation and results management, and provide guidance on the optimal way to implement this new module.