Substances and Methods Prohibited at All Times

 
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (i.e. drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued) is prohibited at all times.

PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES

S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited.
  1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
    a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
    • 1-androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3ß,17ß-diol )
    • 1-androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione)
    • bolandiol (19-norandrostenediol)
    • bolasterone
    • boldenone
    • boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione)
    • calusterone
    • clostebol
    • danazol (17α-ethynyl-17ß-hydroxyandrost-4-eno[2,3-d]isoxazole)
    • dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17ß-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
    • desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17ß-ol)
    • drostanolone
    • ethylestrenol (19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-17-ol)
    • fluoxymesterone
    • formebolone
    • furazabol (17ß-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androstano[2,3-c]-furazan)
    • gestrinone
    • 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17ß-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one)
    • mestanolone
    • mesterolone
    • metenolone
    • methandienone (17ß-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
    • methandriol
    • methasterone (2a, 17α-dimethyl-5α-androstane-3-one-17ß-ol)
    • methyldienolone (17ß-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one)
    • methyl-1-testosterone (17ß-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
    • methylnortestosterone (17ß-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one)
    • methyltestosterone
    • metribolone (methyltrienolone, 17ß-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
    • mibolerone
    • nandrolone
    • 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione)
    • norboletone
    • norclostebol
    • norethandrolone
    • oxabolone
    • oxandrolone
    • oxymesterone
    • oxymetholone
    • prostanozol (17ß-hydroxy-5α-androstano[3,2-c] pyrazole)
    • quinbolone
    • stanozolol
    • stenbolone
    • 1-testosterone (17ß-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
    • tetrahydrogestrinone (18a-homo-pregna-4,9,11-trien-17ß-ol-3-one)
    • trenbolone

    and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).

    b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:
    • androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol)
    • androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione)
    • dihydrotestosterone (17ß-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one)
    • prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA)
    • testosterone

    and the following metabolites and isomers:

    • 5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol
    • 5α-androstane-3α,17ß-diol
    • 5α-androstane-3ß,17α-diol
    • 5α-androstane-3ß,17ß-diol
    • androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol
    • androst-4-ene-3α,17ß-diol
    • androst-4-ene-3ß,17α-diol
    • androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol
    • androst-5-ene-3α,17ß-diol
    • androst-5-ene-3ß,17α-diol
    • 4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3ß,17ß-diol)
    • 5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione)
    • epi-dihydrotestosterone
    • epitestosterone
    • 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one
    • 3ß-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one
    • 19-norandrosterone
    • 19-noretiocholanolone
  2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
    • Clenbuterol
    • selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)
    • tibolone
    • zeranol
    • zilpaterol
For the purpose of this section:
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally.
S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors are prohibited:
  1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [e.g. erythropoietin (EPO), darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide (Hematide)];
  2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in males;
  3. Insulins;
  4. Corticotrophins;
  5. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) as well as any other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching; and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited except salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regime.

The presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of a therapeutic dose (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) of inhaled salbutamol.
S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS
The following classes are prohibited:
  1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to:
    • aminoglutethimide
    • anastrozole
    • androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione)
    • 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo)
    • exemestane
    • formestane
    • letrozole
    • testolactone
  2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to:
    • raloxifene
    • tamoxifen
    • toremifene
  3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to:
    • clomiphene
    • cyclofenil
    • fulvestrant
  4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to:
    • myostatin inhibitors
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited.  They include:
  • diuretics
  • desmopressin
  • plasma expanders (e.g. glycerol; intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol)
  • probenecid
and other substances with similar biological effect(s).
 
Diuretics include:
  • acetazolamide
  • amiloride
  • bumetanide
  • canrenone
  • chlorthalidone
  • etacrynic acid
  • furosemide
  • indapamide
  • metolazone
  • spironolactone
  • thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide)
  • triamterene
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) (except drosperinone, pamabrom and topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).

The use in- and out-of-competition, as applicable, of any quantity of a substance subject to threshold limits (i.e. salbutamol, morphine, cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic or other masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use Exemption for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or other masking agent.


PROHIBITED METHODS

M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
  1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
  2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including, but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
The following is prohibited:
  1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Control is prohibited.  These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases);
  2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations;
  3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reinfusion of whole blood into the circulatory system is prohibited.
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
  1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
  2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells;
  3. The use of agents that directly or indirectly affect functions known to influence performance by altering gene expression.  For example, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.